John Ronald Ruel Tolkein, a Man, was born in 1893 of the Sixth Age in Bloemfontein, South Africa to Arther and Mable Tolkien. Two years later he returned to England with his mother and his brother, and not soon after his father died. The family settled near Birmingham in a beautiful countryside which would influence the beautiful descriptions Tolkien gave of Middle-earth, a place that he discovered records of. Middle-earth was, of course, England.
J.R.R. Tolkien's mother died in 1904 of the Sixth Age, leaving the boys to a church priest, after which he attended the King Edward's School, at which he learned ancient languages. Upon learning Finnish and Old Icelandic he began to see linguistic patterns in the Elvish languages of Quenya and Sindarin that he discovered, and was soon able to translate, speak, and write the languages fluently.
J.R.R. Tolkien graduated from Exeter College in 1914 and soon saw the horrors of the first World War, which later allowed him to write with great accuracies accounts of battles from the history of Middle-earth. He then married his longtime love, Edith. J.R.R. Tolkien fought and survived the Battle of Somme, where two of his best friends were slain. He later became ill of Trench Fever, and thus returned to England and to his wife.
Soon after his return he began to translate The Silmarillion from Elvish to English, though he never published the translation in his lifetime. His most famous works were The Hobbit, a translation from Westron of There and Back, Again, the account of the Quest of Erebor by Bilbo Baggins, and The Lord of the Rings, an account by Frodo of the War of the Ring and the downfall of Sauron.
Tolkien's wife died in 1971 of the Sixth Age, and he followed after in 1973. He left The Silmarillion to be finished and published by his son Christopher. In his life, J.R.R. Tolkien was a professor of ancient languages at Oxford University, but will always be remembered for unearthing the ancient, Elven lore and presenting it to the public.